Broad, 35, has a calf problem, with fears he will not only miss the Lord’s Test but further matches after that.
Lancashire’s Saqib Mahmood has been called up as cover, with Mark Wood and Craig Overton are other pace-bowling options in the squad.
The series is level at 0-0 after the first Test at Trent Bridge was drawn.
England’s fast-bowling resources are already depleted. Jofra Archer, with an elbow injury, and Olly Stone, with a back problem, are long-term absentees, while Chris Woakes is out with a heel issue.
All-rounder Ben Stokes has also taken an indefinite break from cricket to focus on his mental wellbeing.
Meanwhile, India will be without fast bowler Shardul Thakur, who has a hamstring injury.
His absence could mean a return for off-spinner Ravichandran Ashwin, who was left out of the first Test despite having 413 Test wickets to his name as India opted for four frontline pace bowlers. (BBC)