Robinson, 27, made his debut against New Zealand in June but was suspended when historical racist and sexist tweets were revealed.
All-rounder Ben Stokes returns after his finger injury while wicketkeeper-batter Jonny Bairstow is recalled.
Chris Woakes is out with a bruised heel and Jofra Archer is not ready to return following elbow surgery. The first Test in the five-match series begins on August 4 at Trent Bridge.
Those selected will be available for their team’s first two matches in The Hundred, which started yesterday, before leaving to join the squad.
England Squad: Joe Root, James Anderson, Jonny Bairstow, Dom Bess, Stuart Broad, Rory Burns, Jos Buttler, Zak Crawley, Sam Curran, Haseeb Hameed, Dan Lawrence, Jack Leach, Ollie Pope, Ollie Robinson, Dom Sibley, Ben Stokes and Mark Wood. (BBC)